Science

Thursday, December 8, 2016

Wake-up Call: 6.5 Quake a Reminder to Prepare

Posted By on Thu, Dec 8, 2016 at 3:42 PM

This morning's earthquake recorded at HSU. - FACEBOOK
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  • This morning's earthquake recorded at HSU.
Today’s magnitude-6.5 quake centered 100 miles off the coast of Ferndale has already produced a trio of aftershocks and more are likely to follow in the weeks to come, earthquake experts note.

The 6:50 a.m. quake was caused by an east-west strike slip on the Mendocino fault, which runs along the boundary of the Pacific and Gorda plates, according to Humboldt State University geology professor Lori Dengler.

It’s the North Coast’s hotbed of seismic activity, she said in an email to the Journal, and produced a magnitude-7 earthquake in September of 1994 that was located about 26 miles east of today’s epicenter.

Because this fault is moving in a horizontal direction, these quakes don’t pose a tsunami threat and are unlikely to trigger submarine landslides, which can also cause tsunamis.

Originally listed as a magnitude-6.8 by the USGS, today’s quake was later revised to a 6.5. The aftershocks have so far included a magnitude-2.4 at 8:24 a.m. on shore near Petrolia, a 5.2 at 8:32 a.m. located 107 miles west of Cape Mendocino and a 4.7 situated 36 miles west of Petrolia at 8:33 a.m.

“There is always a small chance that today’s quake could trigger activity on the Mendocino fault closer to the coast,” Dengler said, adding that that segment ruptured in 1994 so most of the accumulated strain may have been released. “There is also a small chance it could trigger fault slip in adjacent areas of the Gorda plate producing a quake similar to the February 1995 magnitude 6.6.”

Dengler notes that Gorda quakes located far offshore will be felt but are unlikely to cause damage.
Hundreds of people from Oregon, Humboldt, Del Norte and Mendocino reported feeling the quake, with most describing weak to light shaking.

This morning’s quake is yet another reminder that the North Coast is an earthquake prone area (recent activity includes a 4.6 on Tuesday near Crescent City and a 4.3 on Monday near Rio Dell) and the best defense is preparation. For more information, visit the Living on Shaky Ground website.

Free copies of the earthquake preparedness magazine “Living on Shaky Ground: How to Prepare for Earthquakes and Tsunamis in Northern California” can also be requested by leaving a message at 826-6019.

For up-to-date tsunami information, Dengler said to forget apps and sign up for text messages from the most direct source: the National Tsunami Warning Centers. In the U.S., send a text message to 40404 with 'follow NWS_NTWC' for NTWC messages, and 'follow NWS_PTWC' for PTWC messages. To stop receiving NTWC text messages, you can text 'stop NWS_NTWC' to 40404.

Dengler also notes that the Cascadia subduction zone “poses our largest magnitude earthquake threat.”

“Today’s quake is not likely to have made a significant difference to the long-term strain accumulation that will eventually be released by an earthquake in the magnitude 8 to 9 range,” she said. “That being said, that earthquake will come – maybe this afternoon and maybe 200 years from now. The only thing that is certain is that we are one day closer today than we were yesterday.”

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Wednesday, November 2, 2016

HumBug: Fly Fishing

Posted By on Wed, Nov 2, 2016 at 4:49 PM

A fishing lure designed to emulate a mayfly. - ANTHONY WESTKAMPER
  • Anthony Westkamper
  • A fishing lure designed to emulate a mayfly.

A very long time ago I got into fly fishing. It is a highly technical method for fooling an animal with a brain smaller than a pea into thinking that bits of feathers and fluff are something good to eat. Those somethings are usually members of three orders of insects: mayflies, stoneflies and caddisflies. The first books written on the subject appeared in the 1400s. A study that has been around that long has a bit of its own terminology apart from more formal entomology.

Even the names of the critters are different, based more on appearance than close family relationships.
Mayflies (order ephemenoptera) are probably the most important group to know. They start life as an egg, hatch into a tiny dark “nymph” that feeds, grows and molts several more times until it pulls itself out of the water and deploys wings and breathes air for the first time.

A mayfly (the real McCoy). - ANTHONY WESTKAMPER
  • Anthony Westkamper
  • A mayfly (the real McCoy).
That first airbreathing form has one job: to get out of the water. Shortly after that it molts again when it has a different job to do: mate. Entomologists call these phases “sub-imago" and "imago.” While fly fishers call them "duns" and "spinners.” Combined, the dun and spinner phases live only a few days. Throughout the year there are “hatches” which can fill the air with these harmless, dainty creatures. During such hatches trout will often start feeding selectively on them to the exclusion of all else. If you want to catch anything you need to present something that looks like what they’re feeding on.

Dragonfly larva. - ANTHONY WESTKAMPER
  • Anthony Westkamper
  • Dragonfly larva.
Dragonfly nymph lure. - ANTHONY WESTKAMPER
  • Anthony Westkamper
  • Dragonfly nymph lure.

A really dedicated angler will catch a specimen of whatever insect the fish seem to be eating and attempt to duplicate its appearance with bits of fuzz and feathers. This is called “matching the hatch.” When that doesn’t work, the fisherman may try any number of options, like flies tied to resemble bees, wasps, grasshoppers and ants.

A black ant. - ANTHONY WESTKAMPER
  • Anthony Westkamper
  • A black ant.
A black ant lure. - ANTHONY WESTKAMPER
  • Anthony Westkamper
  • A black ant lure.
You can tie your own flies, but many of those tiny works of art in a fly shop are not so much designed to catch fish as a fisherman’s wallet.


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Sunday, October 9, 2016

HumBug: Seasons Change

Posted By on Sun, Oct 9, 2016 at 3:00 PM

Tiny acmon blue butterfly. Each wing about the size of your little fingernail. - ANTHONY WESTKAMPER
  • Anthony Westkamper
  • Tiny acmon blue butterfly. Each wing about the size of your little fingernail.

Seasons change, and with them the insects we see. Headed toward winter now, there are fewer dragonflies. It seems the big common green darners are all gone now, migrated elsewhere. But on a recent stroll along the Van Duzen, I saw several others. A solitary dusty, old-looking western river cruiser and a couple too far off to identify.

Mylitta crescent butterfly, Each wing about as big as my thumbnail. - ANTHONY WESTKAMPER
  • Anthony Westkamper
  • Mylitta crescent butterfly, Each wing about as big as my thumbnail.

I saw several California sister butterflies. They all looked worn and tired, with faded and shredded wings. There were several small Mylitta crescent butterflies (Phyciodes mylitta), a few tiny gray (with a line of square orange dots) Acomon blues (Plebejus acmon). Interestingly enough this species may have several broods throughout the year and the colors vary from brilliant blue in spring, to dark gray later in the year. Their larvae form symbiotic relations with certain species of ant wherein the ants provide protection and the caterpillar secretes honeydew, which the ants consume.

Blazing star, about 4 inches across. - ANTHONY WESTKAMPER
  • Anthony Westkamper
  • Blazing star, about 4 inches across.

As there is every year, there was a single blazing star plant (Mentzelia laevicaulis) blooming on the river bar. Funny thing is that I see only a single one of this plant every year but in different places on the river bar.

Finally, near the end of my stroll, I noted one of the mosaic darner family of dragonflies patrolling a tiny sheltered side stream of the river. It never ceased its flight, only occasionally hovering for a few seconds. I don't know how long I spent trying all the tricks I know to get a good shot of it. When I posted it in an entomological site, I got a quick response that it was a shadow darner (Aeshna umbrosa). This large dragonfly is one of the most cold tolerant and is common throughout North America. It can often be seen late in the season patrolling along brushy riverbanks.




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Sunday, September 25, 2016

HumBug: False Scorpions

Posted By on Sun, Sep 25, 2016 at 3:31 PM

Pseudoscorpion on 1/8-inch ruled graph paper. - ANTHONY WESTKAMPER
  • Anthony Westkamper
  • Pseudoscorpion on 1/8-inch ruled graph paper.

A little over 20 years ago, after moving to the country, I noticed a tiny, dark critter, no bigger than a newsprint letter “o” scurry across my counter. I scooped it up and checked it out with a hand lens. It was an animal I had only read about, a book scorpion or pseudoscorpion. After looking a bit I let it go outside. I've been on the lookout for them ever since.

When I got my new “super macro” lens, I went around snapping pictures of every little thing. When I downloaded some images of a tiny spider, I saw it was in the process of eating one of the strange little beasts. It made for a couple of dramatic and interesting photos but what I really wanted was the pseudoscorpion itself.
Running crab spider devouring pseudoscorpion. - ANTHONY WESTKAMPER
  • Anthony Westkamper
  • Running crab spider devouring pseudoscorpion.
The other night at the light trap I noted a tiny dot on the old bedsheet I use as a reflective backdrop. I was surprised to see one of the tiny creatures. This time I took a lot of photos, captured it and took some more before letting it go.
Pseudoscorpion on the white sheet of my light trap.  The weave should give you an idea how small they are. - ANTHONY WESTKAMPER
  • Anthony Westkamper
  • Pseudoscorpion on the white sheet of my light trap. The weave should give you an idea how small they are.
I don't think it was attracted to the lights. They are active hunters so I think it was just exploring.
While they are seldom seen, I suspect they're pretty common, feeding on tiny animals among leaf litter. Although they lack their larger cousin's tail and stinger, their claws (pedipalps) have tiny venomous bristles on their “thumbs,” so the prey gets crushed, pierced and poisoned in one swift move. They pose zero threat to humans and are considered beneficial since they eat mites, carpet beetles, carpet moth larvae and just about anything else small enough for them to attack. Many species of these little arachnids are known to hitch rides on insects and even birds. I really like these little guys.

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Sunday, September 18, 2016

HumBug: Uninvited Guests

Posted By on Sun, Sep 18, 2016 at 3:02 PM

The dramatically named phantom hemlock looper moth (Nepytia phantasmaria) or a close relative. - ANTHONY WESTKAMPER
  • Anthony Westkamper
  • The dramatically named phantom hemlock looper moth (Nepytia phantasmaria) or a close relative.

The black lights of my “light trap” don't make for a regular trap; the insects are free to come and go as they please. That's the trick, though — the lights are irresistible.

Moths, of course, come by the dozens, but there are others. An opportunistic praying mantis seeks an easy dinner. A burying beetle shows up and a really big California prionus (Prionus californicus). And this time of year, the termites.

A burying beetle with a mite on its back. - ANTHONY WESTKAMPER
  • Anthony Westkamper
  • A burying beetle with a mite on its back.

A California Priornus Beetle, one of the largest beetles in our area. - ANTHONY WESTKAMPER
  • Anthony Westkamper
  • A California Priornus Beetle, one of the largest beetles in our area.
These are the flying reproductives on their nuptial flight. Their script, dictated by millions of years of evolution is this: Leave the nest, fly, drop to the ground, meet up, shed wings and seek a crevice in the ground to found a new dynasty. But they are drawn like sailors to a siren's song, although it's not the lights that will kill them, but the bats.

A little brown bat. - ANTHONY WESTKAMPER
  • Anthony Westkamper
  • A little brown bat.
In flight, the termites are clumsy, fluttering creatures, unlike the swift, agile, mammalian hunters, who have learned over the last few weeks that the place where I set up my trap is a target-rich environment. So, early in the evening, the termites come, followed all too swiftly by the little brown bats and maybe others. It is a slaughter. By the time the “flutter mice” leave, there might be one or two termites that aren't flying, but hugging the fabric. If you're quick, you might get a glimpse of the hunter. Photographing them is a different matter altogether. They are so small and quick, my best camera can't pick them up, autofocus, adjust light levels, initiate exposure and initiate flash before they're gone. Yet they aren't big enough to trigger my game camera. So I set the focus to manual, pick a likely spot and wait. I rarely guess right, and my reflexes are seldom good enough to get get a shot. Usually what I get is a dark photo of the forest around me, but once in a rare while I get it right. And that makes me grin in the darkness.



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Sunday, September 11, 2016

HumBug: Like Moths to a Black Light

Posted By on Sun, Sep 11, 2016 at 3:00 PM

The aptly named pale beauty. - ANTHONY WESTKAMPER
  • Anthony Westkamper
  • The aptly named pale beauty.

Last week I wrote about setting up a light trap in my backyard with only limited success. At the suggestion of some folks in an entomological chat room, I tried it with black compact fluorescent lights rather than Coleman lanterns. The old gas lanterns give off a great deal of heat and frequencies in the lower end of the spectrum but not much in the high end.
A light trap fit for an insect rave. - ANTHONY WESTKAMPER
  • Anthony Westkamper
  • A light trap fit for an insect rave.
In his research Karl Von Frisch noted that bees couldn't discern between red (low frequency) light and black paper, while they can see farther into the ultraviolet than we can. It is not much of a stretch to figure that other species might be more attracted to higher energy light. I substituted three black light CFLs for the lanterns. It made a significant difference.
Cerambycid Beetle, a yellow Douglas fir borer (Centrodera spruces). - ANTHONY WESTKAMPER
  • Anthony Westkamper
  • Cerambycid Beetle, a yellow Douglas fir borer (Centrodera spruces).
Where I had seen about three to five insects attracted to the lanterns each night, now I attracted 30 or more from several different orders, not to mention species. I was able to capture photos of varieties I've been wanting to talk about but had no photos of. For example, in the past I've posted photos of caddisfly larvae, but had no adult forms to include. Several (not of the species of which I have baby pictures) came to my lights last night. The green “pale beauty” (Campaea perlata), and its tan cousin the omnivorous looper (Subulodes aegrotata) have put in appearances.
A trio of caddisflies, all grown up. - ANTHONY WESTKAMPER
  • Anthony Westkamper
  • A trio of caddisflies, all grown up.
Having said all of that, I remember many more insects that came to the Coleman lanterns when I was a kid. Sadly, back then I did not have any black lights.

I will probably be running these lights every night until the weather gets too wet. I am still hoping for a giant waterbug, giant cranefly, or a ceanothus moth.

And by the way, after my most recent post the co-author of Insects of the Pacific Northwest, Peter Haggard was kind enough to do an identification of the giant lacewing I included in my post. It is Polystoechotes punctate.

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Sunday, September 4, 2016

HumBug: Missing Giants

Posted By on Sun, Sep 4, 2016 at 3:00 PM

This moth is still a mystery, too. Anyone? - ANTHONY WESTKAMPER
  • Anthony Westkamper
  • This moth is still a mystery, too. Anyone?
The last couple of nights I've been running an experiment to answer a question. When I was a kid, I could leave the porch light on almost any night and there'd be a bunch of insects around it in an hour or so. Lately, I've been noticing that there don't seem to be nearly as many, and several of the really big ones I used to see are missing. The Ceanothus moth, giant waterbug and giant cranefly, to name three. I decided to set up my own little light trap. Resurrecting some old Coleman lanterns and a white sheet, I cobbled it together. While none of the big three made an appearance, the lights did attract a few moderate sized moths, a termite and an ichneumon.
A flying termite. - ANTHONY WESTKAMPER
  • Anthony Westkamper
  • A flying termite.
I did this because there is an ongoing and disturbing current in the online entomological chatter. Apparently insect populations the world over are falling, and it's not just the bad ones humankind has been battling for as long as there has been a humankind, or the big names like honeybees and monarch butterflies. There seems to be an overall decline in the numbers and diversity in the arthropod world.
A DIY light trap. Bugs come and go as they please and the 10-pound hammer is only for self defense. - ANTHONY WESTKAMPER
  • Anthony Westkamper
  • A DIY light trap. Bugs come and go as they please and the 10-pound hammer is only for self defense.
This rosy beauty is yet unidentified. - ANTHONY WESTKAMPER
  • Anthony Westkamper
  • This rosy beauty is yet unidentified.
So I decided to check things out in my own backyard. Yes, despite my best efforts I have yet to attract anything like the numbers I used to see 50+ years ago. And no, this is not a clean well documented scientific experiment because I did not foresee the need to take data on it when I was a kid. It is at best anecdotal evidence but it is enough to give me pause.
A giant lacewing on my front windowsill. - ANTHONY WESTKAMPER
  • Anthony Westkamper
  • A giant lacewing on my front windowsill.
The afternoon after writing the above, I returned from town only to find a large winged insect on my window frame. At first I thought it might be a cicada but on closer inspection it was shaped all wrong. I took several photos before it just fluttered off and was gone. It turns out to be a giant lacewing (family polystoechotidae). Listed as “rare” in the second edition of American Insects, A Handbook of the Insects of North America North of Mexico. So after setting up a trap in my backyard and staying up past midnight several nights in a row, I find a rare “giant insect” attracted to the wrong side of my house in the daytime. Sometimes I think Mother Nature pokes fun at me.


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Friday, September 2, 2016

Feds Find Improper Care After Fisher Death at HSU

Posted By on Fri, Sep 2, 2016 at 10:10 AM

A resting female fisher in the wild. - HOOPA VALLEY TRIBE, REBECCA GREEN
  • Hoopa Valley Tribe, Rebecca Green
  • A resting female fisher in the wild.
The U.S. Department of Agriculture recently found that Humboldt State University failed to follow laboratory protocols as staff observed the declining health of a dying fisher for nearly a week without calling a veterinarian.

The routine inspection report dated Aug. 3 includes a daily log kept by the animal’s caretakers in the days before the fisher, a rare member of the weasel family, was found dead in its cage:

4/25/16 - "fisher bald patches larger than I last observed, bald patch on belly as well now"

4/26/16 - "fisher appeared to be heaving/retching after exiting box but observed eating right after that. bald patches increasing in size."

4/28/16 - "fisher appears to be thinner and labored breathing wt - 3.67 kg" (Note - was over 5 kg earlier in the year)

(4/29/16 - Fisher not mentioned in daily observations)

4/30/16 - "fisher still breathing heavily. Didn't eat all of canine diet."

5/1/16 - "fisher ate none of yesterday's food, appears extremely weak and wobbly when walking. FM & KC notified" (Note - not veterinarians, and they did not notify veterinarian)

5/2/16 - "fisher found deceased in box. RB notified" (Note - RB is the Attending Veterinarian)

“The Attending Veterinarian was not notified regarding the condition of the fisher over these dates, until after its death,” the report states. “Daily observation of animals by assigned personnel must include prompt communication with the attending veterinarian, or his or her alternate if not available, in the event that any health problems are noted. Failure to consult with a veterinarian could result in suffering and/or a poor medical outcome for the animals.”

The fisher population has declined dramatically over recent decades with the loss of its forest habitat due to logging and, more recently, the threat of poisons used at illegal marijuana grows.  

Richard Boone, dean of HSU’s College of Natural Resources & Sciences, said in a statement that the school is “committed to teaching and research about wildlife so that we can help protect species like the fisher.”

“We were disturbed by this animal’s death, take responsibility for failure to observe proper protocols, and have taken corrective actions to ensure that a mistake like this doesn’t happen again,” Boone said.

According to HSU, where the animal spent most of its nearly 10 years after being dropped off at the campus as a baby, the fisher had health issues.

Jodie Wiederkehr, who runs the Center for Ethical Science out of her home in Chicago, said she is asking the USDA “to launch a full investigation into this incident and levy the largest fine allowable against Humboldt State University of at least $10,000 per non-compliance.”

Wiederkehr said her nonprofit chronicles citations at laboratories across the nation, which she described as a “hidden issue.”

In the case of the fisher, Wiederkehr said she believes the university should be fined and questions how the incident happened in the first place.

“Common sense doesn’t even take over,” she said. “ … No one even thought to contact the veterinarian and say, ‘This animal is suffering.’”

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Sunday, August 28, 2016

HumBug: An Afternoon on the Van Duzen

Posted By on Sun, Aug 28, 2016 at 2:47 PM

Variegated meadowhawk. - ANTHONY WESTKAMPER
  • Anthony Westkamper
  • Variegated meadowhawk.

Trying to stay up to date with the entomological fauna in my area, I went for an extended hike, braving ankle-deep waters and wading upstream from my usual haunts.
A pale-faced clubskimmer. - ANTHONY WESTKAMPER
  • Anthony Westkamper
  • A pale-faced clubskimmer.
I saw quite a few pale-faced clubskimmers (Brechmorhoga mendax), one of my many favorite dragonflies. You usually see them flying within inches of the surface at the downstream end of large, smooth flats on the river. As fast as they are, the best I could do was set the camera for a rapid fire series of exposures and blaze away, hoping the auto focus could keep up.
The clubskimmer in action — note its reflection on the water. - ANTHONY WESTKAMPER
  • Anthony Westkamper
  • The clubskimmer in action — note its reflection on the water.
In contrast to the medium-sized club skimmers, one of the smallest dragonflies in our area, variegated meadowhawks (Sympetrum corrupt) wait on something affording them a good vantage and dash out after smaller flying insects, often returning to the exact same place over and over again. I think the specimen I saw today was the individual I saw last week on the same snag.
Nasty little bugger that bit my foot: a tiny creeping water bug nymph. - ANTHONY WESTKAMPER
  • Anthony Westkamper
  • Nasty little bugger that bit my foot: a tiny creeping water bug nymph.
Farther up river, something started really hurting on the top of my foot under a sandal strap. I thought it might be a bit of sand or a burr, but when I fished it out I found a tiny creeping water bug nymph. They are not known to attack humans and my foot seemed no worse for wear an hour later.
A darner in the leaves. - ANTHONY WESTKAMPER
  • Anthony Westkamper
  • A darner in the leaves.
Near the end of the day's hike, I noted a large dragonfly acting like it was seeking a place to bed down. Darners, as a group, patrol an area and seldom land until evening. It headed into a single small bush of coyote brush. I studied the plant for several minutes, seeing nothing. As I was turning to go, like Waldo in the Where's Waldo pictures, it snapped into focus, despite the fact that it has bright blue markings and it had been hanging there in front of me all the time (genus Aeshna). 
A western river cruiser. - ANTHONY WESTKAMPER
  • Anthony Westkamper
  • A western river cruiser.
Finally, a Western River Cruiser (Macromia magnifica), flitted by me and, like the darner before, acted as if it were seeking a place to land. I've been seeing members of this very large black and yellow species patrolling a foot or so off the ground along dirt roads for over a month now. I stood still and watched as it flitted between low branches landed. On close examination, the picture shows this one has some mileage on his wings. By the time I got home my feet were sympathetic.


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Sunday, August 14, 2016

HumBug: Silver Spotted Tiger Moth Grows Up

Posted By and on Sun, Aug 14, 2016 at 3:00 AM

The early clusters of caterpillars. - ANTHONY WESTKAMPER
  • Anthony Westkamper
  • The early clusters of caterpillars.
Finally! Early this spring, coming back from the mailbox, I noted a brown glob about the size of my fist on one of my fir trees. On closer inspection, I saw several irregular blobs which all turned out to be bunches of brown furry caterpillars, each a little over an inch long. I wondered what they might be when they grew up.
Pesky earwigs trying to get at my captives. - ANTHONY WESTKAMPER
  • Anthony Westkamper
  • Pesky earwigs trying to get at my captives.
So the next day I selected a branch on which there were only two individuals and covered it with a jelly strainer sack, choked onto the branch with a rubber band. Over the next many weeks, I periodically moved them when they consumed all the needles on the branch tip, each time emptying the sack of shucked off skins and frass (the technical word for bug poop). I really wanted to know what they would turn into. Each time I had to make doubly certain no earwigs got into the covering. Earwigs are omnivorous and I've had problems with them in the past when I tried to do this. Several times half a dozen or so of these European invaders hid in the folds of the bag where the netting bunched up.
Pupa cocoon. - ANTHONY WESTKAMPER
  • Anthony Westkamper
  • Pupa cocoon.
Just a week or so ago, I noticed the larvae were gone, replaced by little fuzzy ovals. Yee ha! Since they had pupated, they no longer required any food so I brought them inside and kept them in a jar out of direct sunlight. Last night I noticed one had emerged. It is a silver spotted tiger moth. I turned it loose after a couple of quick photos.
Congratulations, it's a silver spotted tiger moth. - ANTHONY WESTKAMPER
  • Anthony Westkamper
  • Congratulations, it's a silver spotted tiger moth.
Throughout the many weeks of observation I noted the numbers in my trees decreasing in irregular spurts. I suspect many were devoured by birds. In fact, I think my two were the only ones that made it to adulthood out of perhaps hundreds.
A silver spotted tiger moth in its full-grown glory. - ANTHONY WESTKAMPER
  • Anthony Westkamper
  • A silver spotted tiger moth in its full-grown glory.

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